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MetaStock Formulas

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Analyzing a candlestick chart gives a quite good idea of what is going on in the market. Candlestick patterns and the resistance or support from price pivots and rising or falling gaps together with the use of trend lines are excellent technical trading tools.

Nevertheless starting a trade and deciding to close a trade, candle after candle, remains a difficult task. HACO or the "Heikin Ashi Candles Oscillator" will help you to decide. The heikin ashi candles technique was introduced by Dan Valcu [2004]. “Using the Heikin-Ashi technique”, Technical Analysis of STOCKS & COMMODITIES, Volume 22: February 2004.


In this formula I am using the heikin ashi average closing price:


haOpen:=(Ref((O+H+L+C)/4,-1) + PREV)/2;

This is the HACO digital formula:


avg:=Input("Up TEMA average: ",1,100,34);
avgdn:=Input("Down TEMA Average: ",1,100,34);
haOpen:=(Ref((O+H+L+C)/4,-1) + PREV)/2;
TMA1:= Tema(haC,avg);
TMA2:= Tema(TMA1,avg);
Diff:= TMA1 - TMA2;
ZlHa:= TMA1 + Diff;
TMA1:= Tema((H+L)/2,avg);
TMA2:= Tema(TMA1,avg);
Diff:= TMA1 - TMA2;
ZlCl:= TMA1 + Diff;
keeping:=(keep1 OR keep2);
keepall:=keeping OR (Ref(keeping,-1) AND (C>=O) OR C>=Ref(C,-1));
keep3:=(Abs(C-O)<(H-L)*.35 AND  H>=Ref(L,-1));
utr:=Keepall OR (Ref(keepall,-1) AND keep3);
TMA1:= Tema(haC,avgdn);
TMA2:= Tema(TMA1,avgdn);
Diff:= TMA1 - TMA2;
ZlHa:= TMA1 + Diff;
TMA1:= Tema((H+L)/2,avgdn);
TMA2:= Tema(TMA1,avgdn);
Diff:= TMA1 - TMA2;
ZlCl:= TMA1 + Diff;
keep3:=Abs(C-O)<(H-L)*.35 AND L<=Ref(H,-1);
keeping:=keep1 OR keep2;
keepall:=keeping OR (Ref(keeping,-1) AND (C<O) OR C<Ref(C,-1));
dtr:=If(Keepall OR (Ref(keepall,-1) AND keep3)=1,1,0);
upw:=dtr=0 AND Ref(dtr,-1) AND utr;
dnw:=utr=0 AND Ref(utr,-1) AND dtr;


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The digital Heikin ashi oscillator super-imposed on the price chart.

HACO oscillator chart



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Risk Disclosure: Futures and forex trading contains substantial risk and is not for every investor. An investor could potentially lose all or more than the initial investment. Risk capital is money that can be lost without jeopardizing ones’ financial security or life style. Only risk capital should be used for trading and only those with sufficient risk capital should consider trading. Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.

Hypothetical Performance Disclosure: Hypothetical performance results have many inherent limitations, some of which are described below. no representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those shown; in fact, there are frequently sharp differences between hypothetical performance results and the actual results subsequently achieved by any particular trading program. One of the limitations of hypothetical performance results is that they are generally prepared with the benefit of hindsight. In addition, hypothetical trading does not involve financial risk, and no hypothetical trading record can completely account for the impact of financial risk of actual trading. for example, the ability to withstand losses or to adhere to a particular trading program in spite of trading losses are material points which can also adversely affect actual trading results. There are numerous other factors related to the markets in general or to the implementation of any specific trading program which cannot be fully accounted for in the preparation of hypothetical performance results and all which can adversely affect trading results.

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